Three areas of invention Inventions are of three kinds: Scientific-technological inventions include railroads, aviationvaccinationhybridization, antibioticsastronautics, holography ,the atomic bomb, computing, the Internetand the smartphone.
Some changes may be made at the grantee's discretion as long as they are within the limits established by NIH.
In other cases, NIH prior written approval may be required before a grantee makes certain budget modifications or undertakes particular activities. The grantee-initiated changes that may be made under the grantee's authority and the changes that require NIH approval are outlined below and, with respect to particular types of awards, activities, or recipients, in Subpart IIB.
In addition, individual awards may restrict grantees' authorities to make budget and project changes without NIH prior approval.
If NIH approval is required, it must be requested of, and obtained in writing from, the awarding IC GMO in advance of the change or obligation of funds as specified later in this The invention and business organization forms under Requests for Prior Approval.
Recipients shall immediately notify the Federal awarding agency of developments that have a significant impact on the award-supported activities. Also, notification shall be given in the case of problems, delays, or adverse conditions which materially impair the ability to meet the objectives of the award.
This notification shall include a statement of the action taken or contemplated, and any assistance needed to resolve the situation. Changes in project or budget resulting from NIH-initiated actions are discussed in other sections of this chapter.
InNIH extended expanded authorities to all NIH awards except for the provision to automatically carry over unobligated balances. Certain award instruments, grant programs, and types of recipients are routinely excluded from the authority to automatically carry over unobligated balances.
One or more of these authorities may be overridden by a special term or condition of the award. Grantees must review the NoA to determine if a particular authority is withheld for a specific grant. Grantees must exercise proper stewardship over Federal funds and ensure that costs charged to awards are allowable, allocable, reasonable, necessary, and consistently applied regardless of the source of funds.
NIH may disallow the costs if it determines, through audit or otherwise, that the costs do not meet the tests of allowability, allocability, reasonableness, necessity, and consistency.
Several authorities have specific deadlines for submission of reports or for timely notification to the NIH awarding IC. Grantees should be aware that any consistent pattern of failure to adhere to those deadlines for reporting or notification will be grounds for excluding that grantee from a specific authority.
Cost-related prior approval changes, including research patient care costs and equipment The cost would result in a change of scope. Extension of final budget period of a project period without additional NIH funds no-cost extension The grantee has already exercised its one-time authority to extend the award for up to 12 months.
Transfer of performance of substantive programmatic work to a third party by consortium agreement The transfer would be to a foreign component or it would result in a change in scope.
Unliquidated obligations are commitments of the recipient and are considered to be obligations and, therefore, should not be reported as unobligated balances. The NoA will include a term and condition to indicate the disposition of unobligated balances.
The term and condition will state whether the grantee has automatic carryover authority, or if prior approval is required by the NIH awarding IC.
Note the authority to automatically carry over unobligated balances includes the authority to carryover from one competitive segment to another. Other awards may be excluded from this authority through a special term or condition in the NoA.
However, the grantee will be required to indicate, as part of the grant's progress report, whether any estimated unobligated balance including prior-year carryover is expected to be greater than 25 percent of the current year's total approved budget.
The total approved budget amount includes current year and any carryover from prior years of the project period. If the unobligated balance is greater than 25 percent of the total approved budget, the grantee must provide an explanation and indicate plans for expenditure of those funds within the current budget year.An attorney drafting an agreement has an obligation to represent the client zealously and to prepare a contract that maximizes the client’s legal and business advantages consistent with the .
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or monstermanfilm.com invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result.
And the story of business in the last years is the story of the corporate form. There are some who treat corporate forms as yet another technology (in this case a technology of people-management), but despite the trappings of scientific foundations (usually in psychology) and engineering synthesis (we speak of organizational “design.
The Official Illinois Secretary of State collection of publications and forms. Jun 29, · The truth is way crazier than that.
Tesla was the brainchild of a tiny band of obsessive Silicon Valley engineers who would go on to collaborate with — and collide with — the young billionaire. The Invention and Business Organization Forms Lorraine Smalls and Editorial Broad, American InterContinental University ABSTRACT Lorraine said that invention has been the growth of technology over the years.
The simplest ideas she believes have made life easier for people all over the world.