The European bison Bison bonasus went through a severe bottleneck and became extinct in the wild 90 years ago. The lowland subspecies B.
Am J Hum Genet. Published online Oct Bravo ,4 Juan G. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract To evaluate sex-specific differences in gene flow between Native American populations from South America and between those populations and recent immigrants to the New World, we examined the genetic diversity at uni- and biparental genetic markers of five Native American populations from Colombia and in published surveys from native South Americans.
Elsewhere, we published results for seven Y-chromosome microsatellites in the same populations. Autosomal polymorphisms showed a mean GST of 6. GST values calculated from published data for other South American natives were 0.
The concordance of these estimates does not support an important difference in migration rates between the sexes throughout the history of South Amerinds. Admixture analysis of the Colombian populations suggests an asymmetric pattern of mating involving mostly immigrant men and native women.
Introduction Genetic data have been used for several decades in the study of human evolutionary history Cavalli-Sforza ; Jorde et al. Most often, population analyses have examined allele frequencies at autosomal biparental genetic markers Cavalli-Sforza et al.
More recently, the increasing number of polymorphic markers identified on the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome is allowing analyses of male lineages along the lines of those performed using mtDNA Hammer and Zegura Furthermore, the comparative analysis of markers on autosomes, mtDNA, and the Y chromosome now enables the scrutiny of male and female demographic patterns.
Using this approach, Seielstad et al. Those authors observed that the differentiation of allele frequencies between populations is often much greater for Y-chromosome than for mtDNA polymorphisms.
On a worldwide scale, single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a level of population structure that was 3.
A greater differentiation of allele frequencies at Y-linked microsatellites STRs than at autosomal STRs was also reported for a set of African populations. Finally, it was observed that, in Europe, the greater genetic differentiation of populations at increasing geographic distance was more pronounced for Y chromosome than for nuclear or mitochondrial markers.
Although a smaller effective population size for men than for women, due to polygyny, could be involved in producing these patterns of population structure, the magnitude of the difference across markers was deemed to be incompatible with polygyny being solely responsible.
A preferred explanation is that these differences are due mostly to a lower migration rate of men. This observation might relate to the well-known phenomenon of patrilocality the tendency for women to move into the locality inhabited by their male partnerswhich has been documented in about two-thirds of human populations Murdock The difference is indicative of directional mating involving preferentially immigrant men and Amerind women.
Similarly, the analysis of sex-specific and autosomal markers in Brazilian individuals of African ancestry evidenced a substantial European admixture that was mediated mostly through men Bortolini et al.
Thus far, no comparison of uni- and biparental genetic diversity has been made in the same Native American populations. We use these and published data to compare male and female migration rates during the evolution of native South American populations.
Most of the Colombian Amerind populations examined show some degree of admixture, and these data are also informative in relation to the pattern of gene flow between natives and nonnative immigrants having occurred during the past few centuries. These populations were selected on the basis of their geographic dispersion within Colombia, their linguistic diversity, and their relatively large population size table 1 and fig.
They include representatives of three of the four major linguistic subfamilies present in South America except Ge-Pano-Carib Ruhlen The Zenu also Senu or Sinu currently speak only Spanish, and it is unclear what would be the linguistic affiliation of the language once spoken by them.
According to Loukotka and Wilbertno record exists of the Zenu language.
Nevertheless, Voegelin and Voegelin classify Zenu as a Carib language and indicate that Nutabe is a dialect of Zenu.Małgorzata Tokarska of Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw PAN with expertise in Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology.
Post-bottleneck mtDNA diversity in a free-living population. The mtDNA haplotypes present in historical museum samples were identical to haplotypes found in modern koala populations, and no novel haplotypes were detected. Rarefaction analyses suggested that the mtDNA genetic diversity present in the museum samples was similar to that of modern koalas.
Low. A free-living population of European bison Bison bonasus in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest originated from only seven founder animals after a severe bottleneck that occurred at the beginning of the 20th century.
Consequently, the contemporary population of the species is characterized by low genetic diversity. We studied a total of individuals ( males and 68 females). copy and paste the html snippet below into your own page.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Post-bottleneck mtDNA diversity in a free-living population of European bison: Implications for conservation | A free-living population of European bison Bison. Wójcik, J.
M., Kawałko, A., Tokarska, M., Jaarola, M., Vallenback, P. and Pertoldi, C. (), Post-bottleneck mtDNA diversity in a free-living population of.