Unnecessary or excessive use of restraints Ignoring dietary restrictions Toileting abuse leaving someone on the toilet too long or not taking them to the bathroom when they need to use it Bathing in water that is too hot or too cold Frightening Physical Actions Using frightening physical actions that stop short of causing serious physical harm is another form of physical abuse that is too often used by abusive caregivers of people with developmental disabilities.
What are the Desiderata? Two broad desiderata have governed the project of defining emotions in both philosophy and affective science: A definition that aims exclusively at a is a descriptive definition. A definition that aims at b at the cost of possibly violating some ordinary intuitions is prescriptive.
Scientists have also been interested in the study of folk emotion concepts, and they have applied to them experimental techniques common in the psychology of concepts. There are better and worse examples of emotions as ordinarily understood e. What philosophers and affective scientists aim to offer are prescriptive definitions of emotions that preserve as much ordinary language compatibility as it is compatible with serving interest-dependent theoretical objectives.
One reason why theoreticians are not merely interested in outlining the contours of folk emotion concepts through descriptive definitions is that they suspect that such concepts may include widely diverse items that are not amenable to any robust theoretical generalizations.
At first blush, the things we ordinarily call emotions differ from one another along several dimensions. For example, some emotions are occurrences e.
Some involve strong motivations to act e. Some are present across species e.
This multi-dimensional heterogeneity has led some to conclude that folk emotion categories do not designate natural kinds, either with respect to the generic category of emotion Rorty b, ; Griffiths ; Russell ; Zachar ; Kaganor with respect to specific emotion categories Emotion and observation took place as anger, fear, happiness, disgust, and so on Scarantino ; Barrett Others have argued that there is, nevertheless, enough homogeneity among instances of folk emotion categories to allow them to qualify as natural kinds e.
The concept of a natural kind is itself contentious and probably more suitable for discussing the categories affective scientists are interested in, so we will speak of theoretical kinds instead, understood as groupings of entities that participate in a body of philosophically or scientifically interesting generalizations due to some set of properties they have in common.
Whether folk emotion categories are homogeneous enough to qualify as theoretical kinds has important methodological implications. To the extent that they are, the prescriptive definitions of emotions the theorist offers can achieve both theoretical fruitfulness and maximal compatibility with ordinary linguistic usage in such case, prescriptive definitions will also be descriptively adequate.
To the extent that they are not homogeneous enough, prescriptive definitions will have to explicate folk emotion categories, transforming them so as to increase theoretical fruitfulness while giving up on some degree of ordinary language compatibility Carnap Theoretical fruitfulness, however, is conceived differently by philosophers and affective scientists.
The former often have as their primary target making sense of the human experience of emotions and sometimes to contribute to other projects in philosophy, such as explaining the origins of rational action or moral judgment, or shedding light on what makes life worth living, or investigating the nature of self-knowledge.
Affective scientists, by contrast, are more likely to favor a third-person approach that may be highly revisionary with respect to our first-person self-understanding.
And their prescriptive definitions are often designed to promote measurement and experimentation for the purposes of prediction and explanation in a specific scientific discipline.
In this entry, we will assess philosophical and scientific definitions of emotions in terms of both ordinary language compatibility and theoretical fruitfulness, but acknowledge that the field currently lacks clear guidelines for how to strike a proper balance between these two desiderata.
Three Traditions in the Study of Emotions: At the same time, many of the things we call emotions today have been the object of theoretical analysis since Ancient Greece, under a variety of language-specific labels such as passion, sentiment, affection, affect, disturbance, movement, perturbation, upheaval, or appetite.
This makes for a long and complicated history, which has progressively led to the development of a variety of shared insights about the nature and function of emotions, but no consensual definition of what emotions are, either in philosophy or in affective science.
A widely shared insight is that emotions have components, and that such components are jointly instantiated in prototypical episodes of emotions.
Consider an episode of intense fear due to the sudden appearance of a grizzly bear on your path while hiking. At first blush, we can distinguish in the complex event that is fear an evaluative component e.
One question that has divided emotion theorists is: Which subset of the evaluative, physiological, phenomenological, expressive, behavioral, and mental components is essential to emotion?
Although such theories differ on multiple dimensions, they can be usefully sorted into three broad traditions, which we call the Feeling Tradition, the Evaluative Tradition and the Motivational Tradition Scarantino The Feeling Tradition takes the way emotions feel to be their most essential characteristic, and defines emotions as distinctive conscious experiences.
The Evaluative Tradition regards the way emotions construe the world as primary, and defines emotions as being or involving distinctive evaluations of the eliciting circumstances. The Motivational Tradition defines emotions as distinctive motivational states.
Each tradition faces the task of articulating a prescriptive definition of emotions that is theoretically fruitful and compatible at least to some degree with ordinary linguistic usage. And although there are discipline-specific theoretical objectives, there also is a core set of explanatory challenges that tends to be shared across disciplines: How are emotions different from one another, and from things that are not emotions?
Do emotions motivate behavior, and if so how? Do emotions have object-directedness, and if so can they be appropriate or inappropriate to their objects? Classroom Observation EDU Classroom Observation Summary My classroom observation took place at Iberville Elementary School in small rural community in Plaquemine, Louisiana.
School is dismissed for summer so I observed the Super Why camp which is a continuation of the regular school session for pre-k students. Common Signs and Symptoms of Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation.
Perhaps the most difficult aspect of recognizing the signs and symptoms of abuse and neglect is that individuals with developmental disabilities may exhibit certain physical and/or behavioral traits due to the nature of their disability.
- Classroom Observation On two different days, several observations took place in two different types of environment. I observed a teacher and her students of a second grade elementary school and a teacher and her students aged 18 months to two years old in a daycare environment.
Start studying 4) Emotions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. no conditioned emotional response can take place. What brain area is responsible for extinction?-the ventromedial prefrontal cortex -thru observation or instruction.
Lastly, while during motor execution and imagery, subjects in our study continuously repeated one emotional motor sequence as a representative for each emotion, during the observation task they observed nine different motor sequences representing each emotion.
The Impact of Emotional Contagion and its Relationship to Mood Lauren Englert Not only is emotional contagion present in genuine human interaction and observation but also in human communication through technology. Hancock, Gee, Ciaccio, and Lin () emotional contagion consistently takes place among group members, however, it is.