Obama in pink, McCain in blue; income brackets run across the bottom, tax cut amounts on the left.
The Republic of Lebanon Orientation Identification. Lebanon is bounded on the north and east by Syria, on the west by the Mediterranean, and on the south by Israel. Lebanon consists of two mountain chains, the Lebanon and the ante-Lebanon; a narrow coastal strip, where all the major cities lie; and a fertile plain, the Bekaa valley, which lies between the two mountain chains and provides most of the local agricultural produce.
The port of Beirut is the busiest and most important in the country.
As ofthe population of Lebanon was estimated to be 3, Ninety-five percent of the population is Arab, 4 percent is Armenian, and other ethnic Civil marriage in lebanon politics essay comprise the remaining 1 percent. The birth rate is The average life expectancy for those born at the end of the twentieth century was Whereas at independence, gained inthe population was one-half Christian and one-half Muslim, a higher birth rate among Shiite Muslims upset this balance and was one of the causes of the civil war.
Estimates in the s reveal a population composed of nearly 70 percent Muslims and 30 percent Christians.
Languages spoken include Arabic, French, English, and Armenian. There are many accents in Lebanon. The Beirut accent is the mellowest and most highly regarded, while country accents are harsher.
Accents are a much higher indicator of social status than they are in the United States. Lebanon has seen many invasions, which introduced new cultures and languages. The Canaanites, the first known settlers in the country, spoke a Semitic language.
In the Hellenistic era Greek was introduced and spoken along with Aramaic. Latin later became common, and finally the Arab invasion in the eighth century introduced and assured the hegemony of Arabic.
Today, all Lebanese speak Arabic; most of them, especially the upper and middle classes, speak French; recently, English has become increasingly important. The cedar in the center of the Lebanese flag is the symbol of six thousand years of history: Additionally, the new government has placed much emphasis on secular holidays, particularly Id Il-Jayshwhich celebrates the accomplishments of the Lebanese Army.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
The first cities to emerge in Lebanon were built by a maritime people, the Phoenicians, who determined the cultural landscape Lebanon of the country from about to B. In the medieval period, Christian minorities often helped the Crusaders. This created a close relationship between Lebanese Christians, particularly the Maronites, and Europe, particularly France.
These ties persisted and grew stronger, especially in the eighteenth century, and were a major factor in the creation of the modern Lebanon.
Later, France gave Lebanon a parliamentary system and, for the first time in the Middle East, created a nation where Christians had a strong political presence: The privileging of Christians in governmental positions was one of the main reasons for the civil war, when the population percentage shifted in favor of the Muslims.
Although the various communities in Lebanon share a similar ethnic background, the fact that they are of different religions and they define their cultural and often geographical boundaries through religious affiliation has always been a source of discord. On numerous occasions religious diversity has eclipsed the sense of belonging to a common state.
A tired Lebanon emerged in the early s. Today the new moderate government is seeking to secularize political offices and fight corruption. There is a feeling today that most Lebanese are tired of the war and are trying to put their differences behind them as they reconstruct their country, which is currently under Syrian hegemony.
Lebanese are present throughout the world.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Palestine/Israel/Lebanon. France, Young Arab nationalists found "Al Fatah" in Paris Palestine, november the "Balfour Declaration" by the British government promises a Jewish homeland in .
Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and monstermanfilm.com As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from monstermanfilm.com Browse Subjects.
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